Why do Android animations stutter when iOS animations are so smooth?

The underlying issue is the different animation models on Android and iOS. iOS uses CoreAnimation, an API created by the iPhone team for the original iPhone that was back ported to the desktop OSX. CoreAnimation is a retained mode graphics strategy. Microsoft WP7 also uses retained mode. Google’s Android uses what is known as immediate mode graphics.

All GUIs generally work the same way. There is a main thread with a loop that processes messages from a queue. Messages can range from “move view to this location” or “user has performed a touch at location”. The whole point is that it is a queue so every message generally gets processed one at a time and in a first come first serve order.

For the majority of UI toolkits, including those found on iOS and Android, accessing and modifying objects must be done in the main thread. Despite sometimes being called the UI thread, it is usually also the main thread and often is responsible for not just painting, changing colours, moving objects but also for loading files, decoding images, handling network responses etc.

In Android, if you want to animate an object and make it move an object from location1 to location2, the animation API figures out the intermediate locations (tweening) and then queues onto the main thread the appropriate move operations at the appropriate times using a timer. This works fine except that the main thread is usually used for many other things — painting, opening files, responding to user inputs etc. A queued timer can often be delayed. Well written programs will always try to do as many operations as possible in background (non main) threads however you can’t always avoid using the main thread. Operations that require you to operate on a UI object always have to be done on the main thread. Also, many APIs will funnel operations back to the main thread as a form of thread-safety.

It is usually almost impossible to keep all operations on the main thread down to 1/60th of a second in order to allow animations to be processed smoothly. Even if Google could manage to get their code to do just that, it doesn’t mean third party Application writers will be able to.

In iOS operations on UI objects also must be done on the main thread with the exception of animation operations done via CoreAnimation. CoreAnimation runs on a background thread and is able to directly manipulate, move, recolor and reshape UI objects on a background (CoreAnimation) thread. Compositing, rendering is also performed in this thread. It does this through a combination of hardware and software, providing very smooth and fast animations. From the main thread you can basically issue a call to CallAnimation and tell it to move object1 from location1 to location2. This animation will continue to run even if the main thread is blocked performing another operation. This is why animations will almost never stutter on iOS.

Think of the iOS model this way: The main thread manages application data and UI application state (UI application state includes things such as the strings to be displayed in a ListView etc) but issues physical UI state change requests to a separate and dedicated high priority CoreAnimation thread (physical states include things such as colour, position and shape). All physical state changes can be animated and CoreAnimation will also perform the tweening for you (like the Android animation APIs). Non animated physical state changes will be issued directly by CoreAnimation and the main thread (not the CoreAnimation thread) will block until those are performed. Animated physical state changes that are issued by the main thread will be performed asynchronously by the CoreAnimation thread. Because physical UI state and only physical UI state is managed by the CoreAnimation thread, the main thread can be blocked or busy but the CoreAnimation thread will still continue to not only accurately render the last known state of the UI (as issued by the main thread) but also continue to render any pending or incomplete animated UI physical state changes as requested by the main thread.

In Windows Vista, Microsoft introduced desktop composition whereby the OS maintained a separate pixel buffer for every window. This meant that even if an application hung, the last state of the window (how it looked) is still rendered rather than just being drawn as white (the OS partially managed the state of the pixels in the window). CoreAnimation goes beyond this and offloads much of the UI work traditionally managed by the main thread including managing the state of not just the pixels (like Vista) but of higher level concepts such as widgets, widget locations, widget colours etc.

iOS and Android use completely different software architectures for performing animations. Apple probably put more focus on creating something like CoreAnimation because Apple are a lot more OCD about design and user experience than most software companies. I’m sure Steve would of had a few words with the iOS architects if scrolling stuttered when reading an email because an image on the email needed to be loaded. Humans aren’t computers. Often the perception of performance is more important than the actual timed performance. An email that takes 50ms longer to load won’t be as noticable as a a touch screen that doesn’t instantly respond and move when a user slides their finger over it.

There is nothing too wrong with the Android animation model. It’s the way many toolkits work including Flash which was definitely very animation heavy. I would say the iOS model makes the overall user experience nicer and offloads one more worry for the developer back to the operating system. I’m sure Google will continue to recognise the importance of animation on touch screen devices and continue to accelerate (or rearchitecture) Android in coming releases.

A 5 year old 1st generation iPhone will perform smoother and more reliable animations than the latest quad core Samsung Android phone. It’s a software design problem and not something you can throw more cores at (not least of which because the main thread will only ever run on one core!). Don’t believe people when they excuse stutter and lag as “oh just the Android Java garbage collector”. Modern compacting, generational garbage collectors generally aren’t the cause of the kind of stutter you see on Android.

For the moment, you will never see something as simple as a loading wheel stutter in iOS. I hope this explains why :-)

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